The Nieuport 28 was the next evolutionary step in the long line rotary powered fighters made by Nieuport S.A.d E.(Societe Anonyme des Etablissements) Company. Nieuport designers realized that their previous designs had become obsolete and had reached their maximum performance potential. Therefore it was decided to use structural features of SPAD XIII in the design their new fighter. Such features include: larger surface area of lower wing (second spar was fitted to it so the plane became a real biplane); second machine-gun was placed left of the centerline behind the engine; ailerons were fitted to the lower wing instead of just the top wing. Its first test flight occurred on June 5th, 1917. Unfortunately the new fighter was unable to outperform the already established flight characteristics of the SPAD XIII, which was already in widespread service at the Front. For this reason, French pilots refused to fly it and so these machines were given to the U.S. Air Service which had just reached France. A total of 208 airframes were built. Once completed, the Nieuport S.A.d E. Company switched to manufacturing of SPAD XIII.
The Nieuport 28 entered service with American squadrons in February 1918. Due to an insufficient supply of Vickers machine-guns, combat use of the fighter did not begin until March 1918. It was mostly used for engaging enemy fighters and balloons, rarely for bomber escort or recon missions behind enemy lines. Pilots noted a good rate up climb, high maneuverability and speed due to its thin wing. N28 pilots also reported that the plane has sensitive controls. During its combat service it was found that the plane had a tendency to shed its top wing covering in long dives. Luckily, several early N28 pilots survived these harrowing incidents and were able to warn other pilots of the defect and to avoid prolonged dives at high speeds.