Hmm - I just upgraded my PC too earlier this month (new specs below) and am running the same video card (or close to it - mine is the SC2 variant - they were out of the FTW variant when I got mine), and am not having any problems running RoF.
I've never tried a 4K monitor though (still using my 24" 1920x1080 144MHz gaming monitor for RoF, though I've generally switched to VR on my Rift for BoS), so maybe that is part of the issue, though I don't know why it would be (others around here seem to be using 4K monitors OK, IIRC).
What OS and nVidia driver are you using? I just installed the latest driver (385.41) last night, and checked it and it's working fine with RoF (but so was the previous one I was running, version 384.94). Given that odd Windows message about your video driver not responding, that feels like the best place to focus - are you doing "clean installs" on your driver updates/rollbacks? Do you have the Geforce Experience thing installed? (that was giving me problems a year or two ago - I uninstalled it and never re-install it with any driver update, and haven't had any problems since then)
Not having ever had to mess with that "TdrDelay" setting myself (or seen anybody here posting about doing that), my gut says you'd probably be better off putting that back to whatever it was before you changed it, since it doesn't seem to have worked, in case it gets in the way of something else working.
Are you by any chance using SweetFX/ReShade/FlightFX? (or have you been using it before?) Probably a long shot, but the only time I really had rof.exe crash-upon-launch problems turned out to be when something had gotten corrupted with the SweetFX config file, so I thought I might at least mention it just in case.
How are you setting your screen resolution (within the launcher, or by editing the startup.cfg file)? And are you running RoF in full screen or not?
You seem to have done a lot of the troubleshooting steps I would have suggested, so I'm just throwing a few things at the wall hoping something might stick. Maybe someone here using 4K will have some better ideas (I'll edit the title of your thread to try to attract more attention).
New PC specs:
Intel Core i7-7700K @ 5.0 GHz (Corsair liquid cooler); 16GB RAM (Corsair Vengeance DDR4 3200MHz)
EVGA GTX 1080 TI SC2, 11 GB; ASUS ROG Maximus IX Code MB; Realtek ROG SupremeFX audio
Windows 10 Pro 64-bit; Oculus Rift (CV1); Logitech Force 3D Pro; Saitek Rudder Pedals and Throttle Quadrants