World war one planes:
Posted 28 December 2012 - 22:44
Country: Austro-Hungarian Empire
Manufacturer: Jakob Lohner AG
Entered Service: 1916
Engine: Austro-Daimler, 6-cylinder, liquid cooled inline, 160 hp
Wing Span: 44 ft 1½ in (13.46 m)
Length: 30 ft 3 in (9.22 m)
Height: 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m)
Gross Weight: 2,998 lb (1,360 kg)
Max Speed: 85 mph (137 km/h) at sea level
Ceiling: 11,482 ft (3,500 m)
Endurance: 3 hours
Armament: 1 machine gun
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Lohner C.I Series 18.5
02/28/2011. The Jakob Lohner AG of Vienna, Austria, had designed and produced a range of small bombers, designated B.I Series 11 to B.VII Series 17. In late 1915 the latter (also known as Type J) was developed by Ing. Leopold Bauer into the C.I Series 18 armed observation aircraft. On March 10, 1916, the Flars (Fliegerarsenal, aviation arsenal) of the Austro-Hungarian kaiserliche und königliche Luftfahrttruppen (k.u.k. LFT, imperial and royal aviation troops) issued an order for 24 C.I's (also known as Type Jc), and the first was delivered April 5, 1916.
The last would be delivered by the end of July, however, deliveries were halted by the Flars in June as the 160 hp Daimler powered Lohner C.I was inferior to the Brandenburg C.I. As Lohner was unable to remedy this deficiency, the company was fined with a penalty, and eventually 23 of the 24 aircraft were delivered, being serialed 18.01 to 18.23. The aircraft was unsuitable for front service, and was issued as trainers to Fliegerersatzkompanie (Flek, pilot reserve company) No. 1, 4 to 9, 11 and 14 and two Schulkompagnien (training companies).
On September 22, 1916, the Flars signed a contract for seventeen aircraft of the advanced C.I Series 18.5 (also known as Type Jcr), that received the military serials 18.51 to 18.67. Still fitted with the 160 hp Daimler engine, it was of lighter but stronger construction and had simplified wings of shorter span. Prototype was a C.I Series 18 aircraft, s/n 18.24, that was later reserialed 18.51. (Hence the pictured aircraft was the first production example.)
The C.I Series 18.5 had an increased but still moderate performance, and therefore the type was also used for training, and issued to Flek No. 3, 5, 7, 9, 12 and 13. In March 1917 four aircraft, s/n 18.61 to 18.64, were fitted with a Type II VK machinegun and were used to protect the Versuchsflik (test squadron) at Aspern, Vienna. Some C.I Series 18 and 18.5 were used to test new equipment, including a Wolf engine muffler, which was tested in s/n 18.63. In July 1917, 36 C.I's were still listed, although not all operable.
Span upper wing:
Span lower wing:
C.I Series 18 (Jc)
41 ft 11.9 in (12.80 m)
39 ft 8.4 in (12.10 m)
30 ft 4.2 in (9.25 m)
10 ft 9.9 in (3.30 m)
413.87 sq.ft (38.45 sq.m)
1,916 lb (869 kg)
2,939 lb (1,333 kg)
82 mph (132 kmh)
to 3,281 ft (1,000 m)
7 min 56 sec
C.I Series 18.5 (Jcr)
40 ft 9.8 in (12.44 m)
30 ft 4.2 in (9.25 m)
9 ft 10.1 in (3.00 m)
369.20 sq.ft (34.30 sq.m)
1,673 lb (759 kg)
2,681 lb (1,216 kg)
83 mph (134 kmh)
to 3,281 ft (1,000 m)
5 min 37 sec
And same more pictures not releted too aircfrat in my post but still nice and used in Serbian airforce in ww1
Posted 29 December 2012 - 08:58
Will start to experiment with the heavier crates now!
Posted 29 December 2012 - 12:34
EDIT: It is finally finished
A.D. Scout Sparrow Re: search to win:
AEG G.IV Re: search to win:
AEROMARINE 39 Re: search to win:
Aeromarine Model 40 Re: search to win:
Albatros C.III Re: search to win:
Albatros D.II World war one planes:
Albatros J.I Re: search to win:
Ansaldo SVA 10 Re: search to win:
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Ansaldo A-300 Re: search to win:
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 Re: search to win:
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Aviatik C.I Re: search to win:
BE2 Re: search to win:
Caudron G.4 Re: search to win:
Curtiss Model H Re: search to win:
Curtiss JN-4D "Jenny" Re: search to win:
DFW T28 Floh (Flea) Re: search to win:
DFW R.I Re: search to win:
FOKKER D.II. Re: search to win:
Fokker D.VI Fokker D.VI
Gotha-Ursinus UWD Re: search to win:
Halberstadt DII Re: search to win:
Handley Page V/1500 Re: search to win:
Re: search to win: Handley Page V/1500
Hansa-Brandenburg W.20 Re: search to win:
Hansa-Brandenburg W29 Re: search to win:
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Ilya Muromets Re: search to win:
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Junkers D.I Re: search to win:
Junkers J.I Re: search to win:
LEBED XII Re: search to win:
Linke-Hofmann R.I Re: search to win:
Linke-Hofmann R.II Re: search to win:
Lloyd C.V Re: search to win:
Lloyd 40.08 Luftkreuzer Re: search to win:
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Lloyd FJ 40.05 Re: search to win:
Lohner C.I Re: World war one planes:
LVG C.VI Re: search to win:
"Jenny" (Curtiss JN-4D) Re: search to win:
Macchi M.5 Re: search to win:
Macchi M.5 Re: search to win:
Maurice Farman M.F.11 Re: World war one planes:
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Short type 184 Re: search to win:
Siemens-Schuckert R.VIII Re: search to win:
Siemens-Schuckert Steffen R Re: search to win:
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Zeppelin-Lindau (Dornier) CS.I Re: search to win:
Zeppelin Dornier CS I Re: search to win:
Posted 29 December 2012 - 16:34
When first developed, the AEG N.I was known as the AEG C.IVn being a three-bay version of the two-bay AEG C.IV. Main recognition features are shown in this photo: 1) three-bay wings; 2) support truss over the center-line of the top wing; 3) the Benz Bz.III 150 hp engine; 4) the high exhaust stack to dissipate exhaust flare and protect the pilot's night vision; 5) the removal of the pilot's forward firing Spandau machine gun (not visible in this photo); and bomb racks on the underside of each lower wing (not really visible in this photo). Not many photos exist of the AEG N.I (C.IVn) but one unique feature was the hand-painted four-color night hexagonal camouflage scheme. The photo above shows the early and typical AEG two-color dark green and lilac random scheme. Photo credit: Over the Front, Journal of the League of World War I Aviation Historians, Volume 23, Number 4, Winter 2008, page 362. (via J. Herris)
The AEG N.I (C.IVn) is not unlike all of the other German two-seat army cooperation aircraft of World War I but it is an unusual aircraft in the details of its appearance, its function, and relative scarcity. Yet the AEG N.I (C.IVn) filled the role of a short-range night bomber as a specialized single aircraft assigned to frontline aviation units in direct support of the infantry. German Feldflieger and Artillery Feldflieger units in direct support roles were increased in their establishment from six aircraft to nine aircraft in late 1917. It came about in this way.
Germany anticipated the entrance of the United States in the Great War and by mid-1917, had launched the "Amerika Program" designed to increase its war potential before American forces and production would have a strategic influence on the outcome of the war by mid-1918. When American ground forces were deployed in mid-1918, the German front line would have to be expanded with more infantry divisions. The Luftstreitkräfte (German Air Force) implemented a plan to increase the number and types of air units including Artillerie Flieger-Abteilung or FA(A) units to support the additional frontline infantry divisions. In general, one FA(A) unit of six aircraft was assigned to each frontline infantry division to perform the necessary local duties of artillery spotting, reconnaissance, photography, and limited ground support. FA(A) units were typically "protected" by escorting two-seaters from nearby Schutzstaffeln or Schustas who would fly with or nearby the, say, artillery spotting unit to ward off any attacking enemy aircraft.
Often, Schusta aircraft would operate in twos or more and perform ground attack missions. This proved so successful that the Luftstreitkräfte removed these units from their "protection" role and made them strictly strategic ground attack formations which had a significant impact on ground combat. However, frontline FA(A) units were now left without "protection". In anticipation of this problem, the Verstärkt Program was created in which certain frontline FA(A) units had their aircraft strength increased from six to nine aircraft. At least one "protection" aircraft, usually a two-seater type associated with this kind of work was assigned. In most cases, the aircraft was of the CL-Type; it was lighter, faster, and more maneuverable.
Already, by late 1917, FA(A) units were involved in closer battlefield coordination with their assigned frontline infantry division to the extent that night bombing was adopted as a regular mission. The concept German multi-engine bombers in the strategic night bombing role was expanded to the use of purpose-built single-engine two-seater aircraft for local tactical use. Idflieg developed the N-Type classification for which the AEG N.I and the Sablatnig N.I were designed, built, and issued to Verstärkt FA(A) units.
A.E.G. C IV N
The C IV N was produced as a night bomber in 1917. It was basically a C IV airframe with longer-span wings of three-bay format.
Engine, 150 h.p. Benz Bz III.
Span, 15.3 m. (50 ft. 2 3/8 in.).
Length, 7.3 m. (23 ft. 11 3/8 in.).
Height, 3.3 m. (10 ft. 9 7/8 in.).
Weights: Empty, 880 kg. (1,936 lb.).
Loaded, 1,609 kg. (3,080 lb.).
Speed, 143 km.hr. (89.4 m.p.h.).
Climb, 4,000 m. in 50 min.
Duration, ca. 4 hours.
Armament 1 flexible MG, 300kg bombs
Posted 29 December 2012 - 21:44
but also: (in order of appearance)
Salmson 2 A2 Re: search to win:
DFW R.I Re: search to win:
Armstrong Whitworth F.K.10 Re: search to win:
Otto Doppeldecker Re: search to win:
Maurice Farman M.F.11 Re: World war one planes:
Albatros B.I Re: World war one planes:
Caproni Ca.4 Re: World war one planes:
Lohner C.I Re: World war one planes:
AEG N.I Re: World war one planes:
Posted 30 December 2012 - 11:47
Crew: Two, pilot and observer
Length: 8.46 m (27 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 13.13 m (43 ft 1 in)
Height: 2.90 m (9 ft 6 in)
Wing area: 43.5 m2 (468 ft2)
Empty weight: 760 kg (1,680 lb)
Gross weight: 1,060 kg (2,340 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.III, 120 kW (160 hp)
Maximum speed: 125 km/h (78 mph)
Range: 300 km (190 miles)
Service ceiling: 3,200 m (10,500 ft)
Rate of climb: 2.2 m/s (430 ft/min)
300px-Hansa-Brandenburg_B.I,_Budapest_(2).jpg 24.42KB 889 downloads
Ps : I wish me the Felixstowe
Posted 30 December 2012 - 13:09
You forgot some in there Dendroid, including mine: ]
Hmmmm, it si not finished yet, because I had an exam today, so I was busy. I will finish it until tomorrow morning.
Posted 31 December 2012 - 17:22
12 built, 2 crew
engines: 2x mercedes dIII
weapons: 1 machinegun, 1 torpedo
max speed: 120 km/h,
Posted 01 January 2013 - 16:31
Design and development
In mid-1914, Oskar Ursinus, the founder and editor of the German flying magazine Flugsport, began designing a large twin-engine seaplane of unconventional configuration. While most biplane designs have the fuselage attached to the lower wing, Ursinus had a snub-nosed fuselage attached to the upper wing, and twin engine nacelles mounted on the lower one. The purpose of this arrangement was to allow the engines to be kept close together thereby minimizing asymmetrical thrust in the event of an engine failure, although Ursinus later also claimed that this design balanced out the lowering of the centre of pressure as speed increased, and minimised the drag on the upper wing caused by turbulence from the fuselage.
Ursinus was conscripted into the army on 1 August 1914 and little over a week later, presented his commanding officer, Major Helmut Friedel, with the seaplane design adapted into a Kampfflugzeug ("battle aircraft") intended for ground attack duties. Apart from the aerodynamic benefits claimed by Ursinus, the aircraft's unorthodox layout provided excellent views for the three crewmen and broad fields of fire for the gunner. The design also matched the specifications that the Idflieg had issued in March that year for a "Type III" large military aircraft, and Friedel ordered the construction of a prototype.
This aircraft was built by the men his unit, Fliegerersatz Abteilung 3 ("Aviator Replacement Unit 3") and received the Idflieg designation B.1092/14, although it was generally known as the FU for "Friedel-Ursinus". It was powered by two 75 kW (100 hp) Mercedes D.I engines, and in keeping with the "Type III" requirement, it was armed with a 7.92 mm (.312 in) machine gun in the nose and the engines and crew were protected by 200 kg (440 lb) of chrome-nickel armor.
The prototype first flew on 30 January 1915 and was inspected by an Idflieg engineer on 20 February. His report confirmed that the aircraft conformed to the specification, and Ursinus' claims about the excellent field of fire and advantages of the design in single-engine operation. However, he also noted that the aircraft was difficult to fly, lacking in structural integrity, dangerous to the crew in the event of a crash landing, and underpowered. Despite its shortcomings, the FU was sent to the front, assigned to Feld Flieger Abteilung 28 reconnaissance unit at Ujatz on the Russian Front in early 1915.
With the design proved under service conditions, the Idflieg issued a contract on 1 April for series production to Gothaer Waggonfabrik AG, which acquired a license from Ursinus, who held the patent to the design. Gothaer chief engineer Hans Burkhard simplified and refined the design, which was originally known as the Gotha-Ursinus-Heeresflugzeug (Gotha Ursinus Army Aircraft), or "GUH," later known as the Gotha G.I or Gotha-Ursinus G.I. The first production aircraft was completed on 27 July 1915. These aircraft were powered by two 110 kW (150 hp) Benz Bz.III engines. Gothaer Waggonfabrik built 18 G.I aircraft in three batches of six before production ceased at the end of the year. The final batch was powered by 120 kW (160 hp) Mercedes D.III engines and featured an extra defensive machine gun and nearly double the armor of previous examples.
A single example of the UWD floatplane version of the G.I was also built, ordered by the Navy in April 1915, and delivered in February 1916. During a test flight, six men climbed aboard to take the place of ballast. When they emerged after landing, a nearby naval officer likened the aircraft to the Trojan Horse, and this nickname stuck. It was used operationally until 2 October when it was written off after a hard landing.
Today, little is known about the G.I's service history. Idflieg records show only small numbers ever in service on the Front at any one time (the most being five in October and six in December 1915). At this stage of the war, Type G aircraft were being used for a variety of duties, including defensive patrols, reconnaissance, and only rarely for bombing. By the time it reached the front, the Gotha G.I was already an easy target for faster and more maneuverable fighters, and the few pilot recollections that have survived are largely unfavourable to the type.
The UWD seaplane is known to have participated in a successful air-raid on Dover sometime in 1916, bombing Langton Fort and the Shoulder of Mutton battery, but the exact date is not now known.
Length: 12.00 m (39 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 20.30 m (66 ft 7 in)
Height: 3.9 m (12 ft 10 in)
Wing area: 82.0 m² (882 ft²)
Empty weight: 1,800 kg (3,970 lb)
Max. takeoff weight: 2,966 kg (6,539 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Benz Bz.III inline engine, 110 kW (150 hp) each
Maximum speed: 130 km/h (80 mph)
Rate of climb: 0.7 m/s (140 ft/min)
1-2 × 7.92 mm (.312 in) Parabellum MG14 machine guns
Posted 01 January 2013 - 16:40
The Fokker E.I was the first fighter aircraft to enter service with the German Air Service in World War I. Its arrival at the front in mid-1915 marked the start of a period known as the "Fokker Scourge" during which the E.I and its Eindecker successors achieved a measure of air superiority over the Western Front.
Design and development
The E.I was essentially an armed version of the Fokker M.5K single-seat reconnaissance aircraft(military designation A.III), which was in turn very closely based on the design of the 1913 French Morane-Saulnier Type H. Like the Morane, the Fokker was an externally braced mid-winged monoplane with a vertically tapered box section fuselage, with fully movable horizontal and vertical stabilizing surfaces, also known as "flying" surfaces, giving the pilot the usual tail control functions - roll control was achieved through controlled wing warping, as was conventional in contemporary monoplanes. Wing warping was achieved through external cables attached to the surface and running through a king post located in the front of the cockpit. The fuselage structure was fabric covered welded steel tubing - this constituted the biggest difference between the Fokker and the Morane, which had an entirely wooden framework. Welded steel tube provided the basis for the structure of all Fokker aircraft for many years.
This unremarkable and derivative design was, however, transformed into a formidable fighter when it was fitted with the newly-developed synchronizer gear, the Fokker Stangensteuerung, firing a single 7.92 mm (.312 in) Parabellum LMG 14 or Spandau LMG 08 machine gun through the spinning propeller. Indeed the first five E.Is had been ordered and were under construction as A.IIIs but were completed as M.5K/MG aircraft, retaining the earlier "shoulder-wing" placement of the A.III type. Subsequent production E.Is had their wings lowered slightly - as Leutnant Otto Parschau's E.1/15 had later in its career during 1915 - from the M.5's shoulder configuration, which improved pilot visibility. (These were designated by Fokker as the M.14 which was also used for the following two Eindecker variants.)
All Fokker E.I aircraft had a 68.5 l (18.1 US gal) capacity, single gravity fuel tank, located forward of the cockpit, with a fuel gauge protruding from the sheet metal upper nose paneling, usually offset slightly to port.
Two German pilots, Leutnants Otto Parschau and Kurt Wintgens, worked closely with Anthony Fokker in early 1915 during evaluation of the M.5K/MG. Wintgens is known to have downed a two-seat Morane-Saulnier Type L parasol monoplane on 1 July 1915 while flying his M.5K/MG, but as the victory occurred in the airspace behind Allied lines, over the Fôret de Parroy woods near Luneville, this could not be confirmed at the time. A similar victory over another Morane "Parasol" two-seater, again unconfirmed, was scored by Wintgens three days later. On the 15th, Wintgens scored his first confirmed victory over a third Morane Parasol, the earliest known confirmed aerial victory for anyone flying a Fokker E-series monoplane in combat.
Otto Parschau's E.1/15 Eindecker, the first one to have the lowered wing location.
The M.5K/MG usually used the Parabellum MG14 machine gun for the synchronized armament, which could prove to be a troublesome arrangement, and the five M.5K/MGs built by the Fokker factory in Schwerin/Gorries retained the "shoulder-wing" position of the M.5k for the monoplane wing. Parschau's E.1/15 later had its wing lowered to the "mid-wing" position of the production E.Is, while the remaining four were not known to have been changed. Oswald Boelcke (Future German aerial tactician) was issued the third production M.5K/MG, which he flew during July 1915 with Feldflieger Abteiling 62, based near Douai. - but after he achieved his own first aerial victory on July 4th with an Albatros C.I armed two-seat observation aircraft, Boelcke would score his first single-seater victory with E.3/15, over a B.E.2c British two-seater near Arras on 19 August 1915.
E.Is were mainly flown by regular pilots of the Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, with one Eindecker attached to each six-aircraft Feldflieger Abteilung unit. The Fliegertruppen forces were renamed the Luftstreitkräfte in October 1916, with both units directly serving the German Army - the formation of specialised Jastas (fighter squadrons) in the German air service was still to come. Two were supplied to the Austro-Hungarian air force and five to the Kaiserliche Marine in April 1916. The E.I was soon joined by the improved Fokker E.II and, as the first E.Is were entering service in June 1915, the first of the E.II type was being demonstrated by Anthony Fokker. However, E.I production continued in parallel with the E.II depending on the availability of the Oberursel engines. By 1916, a total of 54 had been manufactured and delivered to the German Army, Navy and the Austro-Hungarian army.
Crew: one, pilot
Length: 7.22 m (23 ft 7 in)
Wingspan: 8.85 m (29 ft 0 in)
Height: 2.9 m (9 ft 5½ in)
Wing area: 15.9 m² (172.2 ft²)
Empty weight: 360 kg (789 lb)
Loaded weight: 563 kg (1,241 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × Oberursel U.0 7-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine (clone of Gnome Lambda engine) using various makes of 2-blade propellers, from 2.3 to 2.5 meters (7.55 to 8.20 ft) diameter, 80 hp (60 kW)
Maximum speed: 130 km/h (81 mph)
Range: 198 km at 110 km/h (123 mi at 68 mph)
Service ceiling: 3,000 m (9,840 ft)
Rate of climb: 20 min to 2,000 m (6,560 ft)
1 × forward-firing 7.92 mm (.312 in) Spandau lMG 08 machine gun
Posted 01 January 2013 - 16:52
Libanski Jaskolka 1911
Edmund Libanski evolved a study for his second aircraft in the autumn of 1910. The machine, a two-seater believed to be initially designated the Mono-biplan II, was generally much more advanced and incorporated some startling features. Its main wing was swept back to 'increase speed and improve stability', and the machine was to operate either with or without its detachable short-span wing, which was carried on struts above the main wing and, in contrast to the Mono-biplan I, was provided with a movable flap to lower the speed of descent during landing. Because of its sweptback wing the aircraft was eventually named the Jaskolka (Swallow).
In December 1910, Libanski hired a disused hall from the Lwow town council and began construction of the Jaskolka with the help of Witold Rumbowicz. The airframe was completed in the late spring and slightly modified in the middle of 1911, and. presumably to ensure good airfield facilities and an experienced pilot, the designer offered the machine for tests to the Austrian military authorities. The Jaskolka was transported to Wiener-Neustadt airfield and assembled there in one of the military hangars under Libanski's supervision. In August 1911, the Jaskolka in its true monoplane form made the first successful, sustained, and controlled flights at Wiener-Neustadt, thus becoming the second machine (after the Glowihski monoplane) built in Poland to do so.
The fate of the aircraft is obscure and it has to be presumed that the supplementary top wing was never tested in the air. Although the Libanski flap gear was a very primitive device and was apparently never used, it was nevertheless a brilliant example of ingenuity and technical foresight on the part of its inventor and served as the inspiration for several Austrian designers. An essentially identical device was described by von Jirotka in the Osterreichische Flug-Zeitschrift of August 1911, in connection with proposals for his own aircraft (which generally resembled Libanski's Jaskolka), and a month later the same magazine printed photographs of the Jaskolka and recognized that the credit for the 'braking' flap should go to Edmund Libanski, who evolved it almost a year earlier. The efforts of other Austrian designers (including Karl Bombard, whose machine, also called the Mono-biplan, was test-flown at Wiener-Neustadt in January 1912, by Adolf Warchalowski) were also inspired by the Libanski-system wing concept, this being the first instance of an aircraft design evolved in Poland exercising an impact upon international aviation development.
It is obvious that the well-known Jaskolka formed a most formidable challenge to Zbieranski's claim to the title of the first and only successful Polish aircraft designer of that era. Zbieranski published the following statement on p. 101 of his book O narodzinach lotnictwa poiskiego (see Zbieranski and Cywinski biplane): 'The photograph depicting this aircraft, allegedly made by Ing Libanski and Rumbowicz in Wiener-Neustadt, was shown in Z. Dekler's "Aero-Office" in 1911 as the product of an Austrian T. Flieger from Vienna, anyway who with whom built this aeroplane is of secondary importance; the important thing is that the aircraft never found itself on Polish territory and cannot be included in Polish aviation. It had nothing to do with the birth of aviation in Poland.'
In the interest of historical truth it must be made clear that: 1) Tomasz Flegier (not Flieger) was always referred to as a Polish pilot, and as such gave a number of flight demonstrations in various foreign towns, including Riga (as evident from Swiat, 1911, No. 14, p. 13 and other press reports of the period); 2) there is not a shred of evidence to connect Tomasz Flegier with the design or building of the Jaskolka in any way (at that time he was in Russia); 3) not only Polish but also all contemporary Austrian documents and publications acknowledge without reservation that the sole designer and inventor of the Jaskolka and all its features was Edmund Libanski (Rumbowicz only helped him to build the machine in Lwow); 4) as already stated (on the evidence of Polish press reports of the period, e.g. Swiat, 1911, No. 35, p. 14) the Jaskolka was built in Lwow and taken to Wiener-Neustadt only for tests. In view of the above facts, Zbierariski's statement that the machine 'had nothing to do with the birth of aviation in Poland' is astonishing.
When Libanski went to Wiener-Neustadt with his Jaskolka, Witold Rumbowicz and Tomasz Flegier evolved jointly a design for their own monoplane project, which was derived from the Jaskolka. Construction of this machine, referred to as the Rumbowicz-Flegier system monoplane, was undertaken by the Warsaw 'Aero-Office' (the ownership of which passed at that time from Dekler to Stepowski and Rumbowicz) in the autumn of 1911. The airframe, built by Stepowski and Rumbowicz, was almost finished in 1912, but nothing is known about its final completion or subsequent fate and no technical details are available.
Construction: The Jaskolka was a two-seat braced sesqui-/monoplane, built of wood, except for the landing gear. The main wing, featuring a very pronounced sweepback, was a divided two-spar double-surfaced structure and was provided with ailerons. The wing panels, set at a coarse dihedral angle, were attached to the upper fuselage framework and braced to the cabane on top of the fuselage, and below to the fuselage and landing gear framework. The detachable supplementary short-span wing, equipped with the movable "braking" flap, was carried high above the main wing on two pairs of struts. The main fuselage frame, trussed by wires, was of rectangular section and was partly covered with fabric. The pilot's cockpit, equipped with a steering wheel on a control column which effected all controls, was situated immediately behind the cabane. Provision for another seat was made behind the pilot. The tail unit, a conventional monoplane structure covered with fabric, consisted of a triangular fin and rudder, tailplane and one-piece elevator. The tailplane, carried on struts below the rear end of the fuselage, was braced by struts and wires. The landing-gear framework, built up of metal tubes, was attached to the first fuselage frame and supported by a system of struts. The landing gear consisted of two front wheels provided with spring shock-absorbers and a tailskid. The Jaskolka was powered by a 28 hp Delfose three-cylinder rotary engine, mounted in front of a two-blade tractor airscrew. The span of the aircraft was 10.6 m (34 ft 9 1/2 in). The empty weight was 240 kg (529 lb) and the maximum loaded weight, as a two-seater, 450 kg (992 lb).
Posted 01 January 2013 - 16:56
Torpedo Monoplane 1911
The second of the Plage designs, which he evolved jointly with the German engineer Court, and acclaimed by the contemporary German press as one of the most interesting and advanced aircraft to appear in Germany in 1911, was called the Torpedo Monoplane because of its exceptionally clean shape. It was constructed in the Max Leuchner Kuhlsteins Wagenbau catbody factory and completed in October 1911.
The machine, a two-seater intended for military purposes as well as for cross-country and high-performance flying, represented a new concept in aerodynamic and structural design. With the greatest emphasis laid upon the reduction of drag and upon protection of the crew in case of a crash landing, careful thought was given to every small detail. On the score of elegance and beauty of line the resulting aircraft had no equal among its contemporaries. The German army authorities expressed considerable interest in the machine, which at their request was delivered to Doberitz for military trials. Unfortunately, nothing further was heard of the Torpedo Monoplane after the very favourable initial press reports.
Construction: The Torpedo Monoplane was a two-seat military or high-performance machine of wooden construction. The wing, of cambered aerofoil section and with an area of 26 sq m (279.9 sq ft), was attached to the fuselage upper longerons and braced with steel wires to a steel-tube pyramid on top of the fuselage and below to the undercarriage framework. The wing was a divided multi-spar structure, both the spars and the ribs being made of ash, and was covered with fabric which was doped with glue. Each wing panel, with a rounded tip and slightly increased chord at the root, had a span of 5.5 m (18 ft 0 3/4 in) and a basic chord of 2.6 m (8 ft 6 3/4 in), and was set at a pronounced dihedral angle. Each wing was provided with a window between the spars at the root to permit the pilot to see the ground during landing. The wing could be completely detached in 10-12 min.
The fuselage, a streamlined structure of ash, was built-up of four longerons and a number of circular frames, its rear section tapering to a fine point. Its forward section, up to the radiators, was covered with duralumin panels, which were hinged to permit easy inspection of the engine and its installations. Aft of the radiators the fuselage was covered with fabric. The raised pilot's seat was situated in the centre and the passenger's cockpit under the wing-bracing pyramid, some distance in front, at the C.G. The wing warping and the elevator were operated by a steering column with a steering wheel, and the rudders by a rudder bar. Dual controls could be fitted. The tail unit, of cruciform configuration, comprised two identical fin and rudder surfaces above and below which were attached to a vertical steel tube filled with solid wood for strength, a divided tailplane and a one-piece elevator with an area of 4.5 sq m (484 sq ft). All the tail surfaces could be quickly detached for transport. The landing gear, of very simple and neat divided design, incorporated two mainwheels and a tailskid.
Power was supplied by a 70 hp Argus four-cylinder inline water-cooled engine, carried on a steel-tube mounting and driving a two-blade tractor airscrew with a diameter of 2.6 m (8 ft 6 3/4 in). The airscrew was provided with a large-diameter spinner which formed the aerodynamic extension of the fuselage nose contour. The two Windhoff aluminium radiators, weighing with water a mere 16 kg (35 lb), were specially designed for the machine and inset into the fuselage sides (under the wing) so as to provide the maximum cooling area with the minimum of drag. A very advanced fuel system incorporated two fuel tanks with a total capacity of 110 litres (24.1 Imp gal), one in front of the passenger seat on top of the fuselage and the other inside between the pilot's and passengers seats, and a small 8 litre (1.7 Imp gal) reserve tank which gave the pilot time to look for a suitable landing ground when the fuel gauge showed 'tanks empty'. The Torpedo Monoplane had an overall span of 11.6 m (38 ft 0 3/4 in), a length of 9.7 m (31 ft 10 in) and a wing area of 29 sq m (312.15 sq ft). Its estimated maximum speed was 130 km h (80.7 mph) and range 500 km (311 miles). No other data are available.
Posted 01 January 2013 - 17:55
Zeppelin-Staaken R.XIV 43/17 of Rfa 501 was brought down at 23:50 on August 10, 1918 by Capt A B Yuille of No 151 Sqn RAF, flying a Sopwith Camel D6573. It crashed 1 mile west of Lighthouse Talmas, near Doullens, and all crew members (Ltn Braun, Ofstv Buth, Ltn Corty, Vfw Donath, Flg Donnemaier, Flg Fonrobert, Uffz Kopp, Gefr Reuther and Flg Schneidersmann) were killed.
In late 1917 the Staaken R.VI was followed by an improved, more powerful version, designated the Staaken R.XIV. These aircraft were powered by four 350 h.p. Austro-Daimler twelve cylinder engines, the most powerful available at the time. Unfortunately, the Austro-Daimler engine proved unreliable and the hope of developing a "super" R.VI series was shattered.
The R.43/17, first of the new R.XIV series, was almost complete in February 1918. A March 1918 Idflieg status report stated that this aircraft had a new seating arrangement for the pilot, consisting of an open cockpit on the upper fuselage decking to provide a broad field of view. It also provided an unencumbered commander's bomb aiming position in the nose. The engines were installed without reduction gears in order to obtain full-scale performance comparison with geared propellers on other R-planes, and the engine mount was redesigned to eliminate the recurrent failure of engine support struts on the R.VI series. By March the R.43 had already flown many time. Its first flight in the acceptance programme took place on 11 April 1918, on which the R.43 carried a 4020 kg. useful load to 3100 metre altitude in 91 minute. Soon after taking-off on the next day a connecting-rod broke in one of the rear engines. The Austro-Daimlers were replaced by four 300 h.p. Basse & Selve BuS.IVa engines, and was reported once more ready for flight testing on 10 May 1918. However, the new unproven BuS.IVa engines showed a propensity for piston seizure and were in their turn removed from both the R.43 and the R.44 (which had been expected to make its first flight on 3 May 1918). The final installation consisted of five 245 h.p. high-compression Maybach Mb.IVa engines. Since the R.XIV weighed some 2000 kg. more than the R.VI, an additional engine mounted in the nose was necessary to at least keep performance on a par with the R.VI.
It required some two months to modify the fuselage to mount the fifth engine. According to the record, the R.43 was ready for acceptance in July and the R.44 and R.45 were ready for their first flights on 3 July and 10 July 1918 respectively. The R.44 was delivered in August and the R.45 in July 1918. These two machines differed from the R.43 in that the nacelle tractor propellers were driven directly by the engine without benefit of the usual reduction gears.
In his writings after the war, von Bentivegni, the experienced commander of Rfa 501, regretted the fact that no systematic attempt had been made to improve the performance of Staaken R-planes by carefully refining the R.VI series. Instead of concentrating on weight reduction and streamlining, newer machines such as the R.XIV embodied a purposeless increase of fuselage size, weight and drag, which in themselves taxed performance and to some extent nullified the effect of an additional engine.
On the other hand, after comparing his experiences with both four- and five-engined Staaken R-planes, von Bentivegni was convinced that the disadvantages of the nose engine had been overemphasized and its advantages minimized. It should never be forgotten, he said in 1920, that an Staaken R.XIV 43/17 powered by five Maybach Mb.IVa engines, additional engine offered increased reliability, the most important factor in R-plane design. The problem of the high landing gear, which had been responsible for the elimination of the nose engine in the first place, was solved by simply keeping it short. This was made possible by design changes which allowed a normal "tail-down" ground attitude.
Among the disadvantages discussed by von Bentivegni was the proximity of the fuselage engine to the main fuel tanks, a factor that increased the fire hazard in event of a crash. It was his opinion, however, that this danger was more than compensated for by the increased reliability provided by the additional engine. An unexpected problem discovered during operational service was that of unavoidable vibrations of the nose engine. These vibrations had a very deleterious effect on the more delicate instruments installed in the later Staaken machines, particularly on sensitive electric wiring and connections.
According to von Bentivegni, the efficiency of the small-diameter ungeared propellers was hopelessly inadequate, and he considered this modification a total failure. Furthermore, the R.XIV series had strengthened airframes to house the more powerful Austro-Daimler engines. The resultant increase in weight was yet another factor which lowered the performance of these machines. Not until the last months of the war were R.XIV shortcomings eliminated with the advent of the improved R.XIVa series.
The typical Staaken wing was retained on the R.XIV with exception of a 1•5 degree sweepback of the outer wing panels; a trailing edge cut-out above the propellers and the fitting of balanced ailerons which were neatly faired into the wingtip outline. Upper-wing gun positions were installed slightly outboard of the nacelles and between the nacelle struts rather than behind as in the R.VI.
The nacelles, somewhat slimmer than those on the R.VI, were mounted higher in the wing gap, and the nacelle strut arrangement was considerably modified. The R.XIV machines were generally fitted with propeller spinners. The R.45 was at one time equipped with large-diameter four-bladed pusher propellers. whose blades were unusually narrow. The large spinner of the nose engine and the aluminium engine cowling provided a smooth entry to the fuselage, broken only by the protruding radiator and the auxiliary landing gear.
As in the earlier Staaken giants, the flight engineer's compartment was located directly behind the nose. followed by the enclosed navigation and commander's cabin, which also contained the bomb-aiming apparatus that may have been hung externally during use. Then came the large open pilots' cockpit located in the upper decking. The open cockpit was a definite departure from the closed cockpit of the R.VI and demonstrated the crews' preference to fly in "open air" unhampered by window reflection, dazzle and condensation and the strange feeling of being shut in from the rushing air.
By this time the Germans had tested and perfected a parachute that was being issued to service aircrews as it became available. The R.XIV carried a full complement of parachutes stored in external fuselage compartments with short "hook-up" lines running to each of the crew stations.
The armament carried by the R.XIV consisted of six machine-guns distributed as follows: one each in the upper-wing gun positions and two each in the dorsal and ventral positions. The increase in the number of machine-gun over the R.VI, which generally carried four (sometimes five) guns, was a reflection of the intensified night-fighter activity of the Allies.
A novel optical communication system developed by the Karl Bamberg firm was tested on the R.44. The technique consisted of writing a message on a frosted glass and then projecting the image through prisms and lenses on to an opaque remote-reading surface. The device worked well on the ground, but failed under vibration, which blurred the message to illegibility.
The R.45 was fitted with a cockpit located behind the trailing edge of the wings in a manner similar to the AEG R.I. The purpose of this configuration was to provide a better view of the undercarriage and ground while landing. During tests at Staaken the wing-root panels were left open in order to improve the downward view. By the time the R.45 left for the Front these panels had been covered and the narrow chord four-bladed propellers replaced by the more usual two-bladed propeller.
On 9 August 1918 the R.45 left Staaken for Hanover, and on the next day continued to the Rfa 500 airfield at Morville. Lt. von Plotz and Lt. Steinhauser were the officers aboard R.45 when, accompanied by R.31, it took-off to bomb le Havre on 15 September 1918. After the raid, the R.45 received a wireless message warning it not to return to Morville because enemy aircraft were over the airfield and the landing lights would not be turned on. But the fuel supply was too low to continue on, forcing the commander to make the decision to land. The wireless operator notified the airfield and asked that ground personnel signal with flashlights. The first and second landing attempts failed, and it was not until a number of flares had been shot-off that enough illumination was provided to enable the pilots to touch down on the airfield. In spite of the emergency illumination, the R.45 missed the runway, which the crew noticed by the severe shaking they received. Suddenly, in the darkness, the left wing struck an obstruction, then the right wing and the R.45 stood still. In the morning the damage was inspected and it was found that the left wing had hit a water-tank wagon and a large portable ladder; the right wing some construction material and the roof of a peasant house. This fortunate accident saved the lives of sixty men who were sleeping in a barracks directly in the path of the careering bomber. It is doubtful if the R.45 was repaired in time to participate in further bombing raids before the Armistice.
The R.43 and R.44 also saw service on the Western Front during the autumn of 1918. The R.43 has been remembered as one of two R-planes confirmed as shot down by an opposing aircraft. On the night of 10/11 August 1918 the R.43 of Rfa 501 was on a bombing mission when it was lit up by searchlights over Talmas. According to the records, it was an easy target due to the large amount of exhaust smoke. The heavy concentration of lights attracted four British pilots to the scene, one of whom was Capt. A. B. Yuille of 151 Squadron R.A.F. Recently transferred to France from Home Defence duties in England, 151 Squadron was a special nightfighter unit flying Sopwith Camels. The R.43 was attacked from all sides. Yuille closed to about 25 yards, but did not fire a shot until he had settled well below and behind the bomber's tail. Yuille then opened with three short bursts and put one engine out of action. The next two bursts set the fuselage afire around the rear gunner's cockpit. The R.43 started going down, with its nose down and turning on one side. It then dived more steeply, burst into flame and one set of wings dropped off. Yuille followed the burning mass down and watched it crash. The bomber's fall was seen for miles, even by pilots who were bombing is miles away and on the German side of the lines. Five of the crew attempted to bail out, but all seven crew members were killed.
On hitting the ground, one of the bombs exploded, completely wrecking the fuselage. French and British aviation experts scrutinized the remains carefully, finding, surprisingly enough, two Lewis machine-guns (and also two Parabellum) in the wreckage. An interesting British Intelligence comment that "little regard was paid to saving weight in the design of fittings throughout the machine, some fittings being more than ordinarily heavy and cumbersome, even for such a large machine", supports von Bentivegni's comments as noted earlier.
On 11 February 1919 British forces occupying the Rhineland found the R.44 abandoned on the airfield at Cologne. The machine had been stripped of fabric and engines, and only the gaunt skeleton remained.
Colour Scheme and Markings
The R.XIV machines were finished overall in printed camouflage fabric. The standard Latin cross was carried on wings, fuselage and tail. The serial numbers were painted in large white figures on the rear fuselage section.
Type: Staaken R.XIV
Manufacturer: Zeppelin-Werke G.m.b.H., Staaken, Berlin
Engines: Five 245 h.p. Maybach Mb.IVa engines
Span, 42•2 m. (138 ft. 5 1/2 in.)
Chord inner, 4•6 m. (15ft. 1 in.)
Chord outer, 3•6 m. (11 ft. 10 in.)
Gap maximum, 4•6 m. (15 ft. 1 in.)
Gap minimum, 3•8 m. (12 ft. 5 1/2 in.)
Dihedral upper, none
Dihedral lower, 2 degrees
Sweepback, 1 1/2 degree
Incidence inner, 3 1/2 degrees
Incidence outer, 1 degree
Length, 22•5 m. (73 ft. 10 in.)
Height, 6•3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.)
Tractor propeller diameter, 4•1 m. (13 f1. 5 1/2 in.)
Nacelle tractor propeller diameter, 3•25 m. (10 ft. 7 1/2 in.)
Nacelle pusher propeller diameter, 4•3 m. (14 ft. 1 in.)
Wheel diameter, 1•3 m. (4 ft. 3 in.)
Areas: Wings, 334 sq. m. (3594 sq. ft.)
Empty, 10,350 kg. (22,822 lb.)
Loaded, 14,450 kg. (31,862 lb.)
Maximum speed, 130 km.h. (80,8 m.p.h.)
Climbing speed, 100 km.h. (62,1 m.p.h.)
Climb with load, 3000 m. (9843 ft.) in 70 min.
Ceiling, 3700 m. (12,140 ft.)
Range with 1000 kg. bombs, 1300 km. (808 miles)
Fuel: 3150 litres (693 Imp. Gals.)
Armament: Provision for dorsal, ventral and two upper-wing machine-gun positions
Service Use: Western Front with Rfa 500 and Rfa 501 August-November 1918
Posted 01 January 2013 - 18:41
It is a French engineer Louis Schreck, who founded the company in 1913 Franco-British Aviation (FBA). The specialty of the FBA, it is flying boats. For six years, from 1913 to 1917, she produced five different types, all built of wood and canvas, FBA types A, B, C, H and S. For the quality of its aircraft production during World War Schreck receives the Legion of Honor in September 1920.
The FBA Type H (FBA 150 hp according to its designation by the Navy) appears in 1916 and is a continuation of type C. With its more powerful engine, it reaches 145 km / h and a range of five hours, making it a good seaplane maritime patrol. It will be used on a large scale in all French naval air centers and allies. It will include the main seaplane used by the Italians, although pilots prefer the Macchi L 3 easier to fly and sea landing which is much less sensitive. The FBA was indeed nicknamed "Attenzione Fatte Bene" by sailors Alpine …
Agents BMS used it repeatedly FBA type H for their special missions, its carrying capacity and autonomy making it very suitable for missions behind enemy lines. It was the first aircraft of the early famous as Plavier, when he served in naval aviation. It is also on aircraft such as the agents of BMS realized a daring bombing raid on Zeebrugge in 1917 and sank at the dock a submarine pilot.
Over 500 FBA type H were produced in 1916 and 1917 in France and 892 in Italy Savoia-Marchetti. The FBA type H, with nearly 1,400 units built during the First World War, the aircraft is the most built before the Denhaut Donnet-DD-2, DD-8 and DD-9 (1100 copies) and the Curtiss HS- 1 and HS-2 (1200 copies).
Some Centre Aéronautique Maritime (CAM) :
Fréjus (Saint-Raphaël), Toulon (Saint-Mandrier), Dunkerque D (Chantier de France), Boulogne, Le Havre, La Pallice, Argostoli, Corfou, Salonique, Bizerte, Venise.
Crew: Three, pilot and two observers/gunners
Length: 9.92 m (32 ft 7 in)
Wingspan: 14.72 m (48 ft 4 in)
Height: 3.10 m (10 ft 2 in)
Wing area: 40.0 m2 (430 ft2)
Empty weight: 984 kg (2,170 lb)
Gross weight: 1,420 kg (3,130 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Aa, 112 kW (150 hp)
Maximum speed: 150 km/h (90 mph)
Range: 450 km (280 miles)
1 × .303 Lewis gun fixed to fuselage, or mounted on post in observer's cockpit
200 kg (440 lb) of bombs
A FBA type H bomb and armed with his gun.
Pilot Tony Orta's flying -boat being launched for an anti submarine patrol over the North Sea.
Schreck FBA nr. 4 leading a line up of two other FBA flying boats and one Short 827 in the hangar at Calais. Schreck nr. 4 was the aircraft (piloted by Tony Orta) used by King Albert for his cross-channel flight on 5 July 1918.
Military Aviation Schreck F.B.A. Type H. The aircraft was pushed to the ground after a flight of over Calais.
Posted 02 January 2013 - 00:58
Manufacturer: AGO Flugzeugwerke
Designed by: A. Haefeli
Entered Service: June 1915
Primary User: Germany
Powerplant: 1 × Mercedes D.III inline water-cooled engine, 158 hp (117 kW)
Wingspan: 49 ft 2 in (15.0 m)
Wing Area: 447 ft² (41.5 m² )
Length: 29 ft 6 in (9.0 m)
Maximum speed: 90 mph (140 km/h)
Service ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,800 m)
Range: 300 miles (480 km)
Crew: two, pilot and observer
Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun
The AGO C.I was a German reconnaissance biplane of World War I of pod-and-boom configuration. The C.1 was designd by A. Haefeli and manufactured by AGO Flugzeugwerke. The AGO C.I entered service in 1915. The design is notable in the fact that it is one of the few pusher aircraft designs coming from Germany. The central nacelle contained the cockpit and pusher configuration powerplant. The twin booms carried the tail and the four-wheeled landing gear. The observer sat at the nose and was armed with a single 7.92 mm Parabellum machine gun.
A single example was fitted with floats for coastal patrol duties for the German Navy (designation C.I-W)
The AGO C.II was a German reconnaissance biplane that entered service in 1915 during the early years of World War I. It was essentially a slightly redesigned version of Aerowerke Gustav Otto Flugzeugwerke's C.I design with a more powerful 220 horsepower Benz VI 6-cylinder liquid-cooled inline engine. The C.II only served in the German air force for about one year before being replaced by more conventional and modernized aircraft. In spite of this fact many considered the C.II as one of the best reconnaissance aircraft of the First World War.
Manufacturer: Aerowerke Gustav Otto Flugzeugwerke
Designed by: A. Haefeli
Entered Service: 1915
Primary User: Germany
Number Built: Not Available
Wingspan: 47 ft 7 in (14.5 m)
Wing area: 430 ft² (40 m²)
Length: 32 ft 3½ in (9.84 m)
Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.175 m)
Empty Weight: 3,000 lb (1,360 kg)
Loaded Weight: 4,290 lb (1,946 kg)
Maximum Takeoff Weight: 4,290lbs (1,946kg)
1 × Mercedes D.IV, 6-cylinder, liquid cooled inline, 217 hp (162 kW)
1 × Benz Bz IV, 6-cylinder, liquid cooled inline, 220 hp (164 kW)
Maximum speed: 90 mph (145 km/h)
Service ceiling: 14,800 ft (4,500 m)
Crew: two, pilot and observer
Armament: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 machine gun
Posted 02 January 2013 - 07:41
The Pfalz A.I and A.II unarmed scouts were copies of the Morane-Saulnier L produced under licence in Germany by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke early in the First World War.
The A.1 was a was a fragile parasol wing airplane. The armed E.III varient became one of the first successful fighter aircraft when it was fitted with a single machine gun that fired through the arc of the propeller. Like the Pfalz E.II the E.III was also powered by 9-cylinder, 100hp Oberursel U.I engine; Its speed matched the E.II but the climb was not as good as the E.I Furthermore, since the E.III was larger, heavier aircraft than the E.I or E.II, it was not as maneuverable. A maximum of eight Pfalz E.IIIs at the front in June 1916
Wing Span 11.20 m
Area 18.0 sq m
Length 6.85 m
Height 3.40 m
Empty Weight 445 kg
Loaded Weight 705 kg
Speed Max 150 Km/h
number of units 20
Posted 02 January 2013 - 09:35
In mid-December, 1917, Rittmeister von Richthofen had an opportunity to fly Pfalz Dr.I prototype.
Here he is sits in the cockpit:
Following the huge initial success of the Fokker Dr. I triplane fighter, German manufacturers created many intended replacement triplane fighters. In this rush for more triplane designs Pfalz was no exception. As it happened, most of the efforts proved abortive. The only type that came close to matching the success of the Fokker was the Pfalz Dr.I.
The Dr. I was in itself derived from the biplane Pfalz D.VII (of which only one prototype was built). The characteristic feature was a very narrow chord of the middle wing. This was intended to aid visibility from the cockpit. The wooden monocoque fuselage bore strong resemblance to the D.III. The aircraft was powered by the Siemens und Halske Sh III rotary engine driving a huge propeller which in turn required a very long undercarriage.
Service pilots involved in testing the Dr.I considered it too slow and its Sh III engine too unreliable for frontline use and no further examples were produced.
Series production ended with only 10 machines. The initial batch of 10 aircraft were shipped to the Front and arrived in April 1918.
Length: 5.50m (18 ft 0½ in)
Wingspan: 8.55 m (28 ft 0⅔ in)
Height: 2.76 m (9 ft 0⅔ in)
Wing area: 17.20m² (185.14 ft²)
Empty weight: 510 kg (1,124 lb)
Loaded weight: 705 kg (1,554 lb)
Powerplant: 1 × Siemens-Halske Sh.III eleven cylinder geared rotary engine, 119 kW (160 hp)
Maximum speed: 190km/h (118mph) at 4,000m (13,125 ft)
Service ceiling: 6,000 m (19,680 ft)
Time to 5,000 m: 13.5 minutes
Endurance: 1.5 hours
Guns: 2 x synchronised LMG 08/15 machine guns
Posted 02 January 2013 - 13:08
During 1917, formation and equipment of the Injanterie-Flieger units proceeded and, until specifically designed aircraft (e.g. Junkers J I, etc.) were available in sufficient quantity A.E.G. J Is and J IIs were allocated. Supply of these machines was a relatively simple matter, as the aircraft itself was virtually a C IV re-engined with a Benz and with a modified, armoured fuselage.
Powering the J I was the 200 h.p. Benz Bz IV, giving an increase of 40 h.p. over the Mercedes D III installed in the C IV. However, every ounce of this additional power was required to haul the extra 860 lb. of armour plate through the air. Armour plate extended from the nose to the aft extremity of the rear cockpit and was some 5.1 mm. thick. There were three panels either side of the fuselage, three underneath and a transverse bulkhead at the back of the rear cockpit to protect the observer from behind. The armour in no way formed part of the structure: it represented little more than sheets of steel fastened to the fuselage framework by set-screws entering clips clamped round structural members, with scant concession to shaping. In fact, the angular severity of the resultant nose contours was strongly reminiscent of a tank.
J Is were not fitted with any forward-firing armament, but two Spandau guns were bolted to tubular brackets on the rear cockpit floor. These fired forward and downwards at an angle of 45#' to facilitate Straffing of troops and harassing of ground targets, which were the prime duties of the A.E.G. J I. They were operated through Bowden wire controls from twin triggers mounted conveniently at the observer's right hand. Ammunition was belt-fed from a large supply drum mounted close to the guns. Rudimentary sighting was through a circular hole in the forward right-hand corner of the cockpit. For defensive purposes, the observer was equipped with the usual free-firing Parabellum gun on a ring mounting.
In the prototype machine the wing structure was identical with that of the C IV, but in operation, due to the added weight of the armour, the aeroplane was found to need a much greater degree of lateral control. To secure this without drastic revision of the flying surfaces, ailerons were added to the tips of the lower wings and simply connected to the upper ailerons with a rigid link strut, as the modus operandi was exactly the same as that of the earlier C type machine.
The remainder of the aircraft was almost pure C IV. Even the Daimler-Mercedes radiator was retained, though it now served a Benz engine. The number of spiral spring shock absorbers was reinforced to cater for the increased weight of the machine.
Later on, in 1918, a further development known as the J II was produced, but this differed little from the J I structurally. All control surfaces except for the lower ailerons, were now revised with large overhung horn balances which materially altered the appearance of the aircraft. To improve directional stability, the vertical fin was increased in area, raking up from the fuselage in a compound curve. The aileron link strut was located at the forward end of the operating crank instead of in the middle of the ailerons.
Altogether, according to the findings of the Inter Allied Commission immediately after the armistice, some 609 J type aircraft were produced by the A.E.G. concern.
Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz.IV 6 cylinder water-cooled inline engine, 200 hp (149 kW)
Wingspan: 44 ft 2 in (13.46 m)
Wing Area: 358 ft² (33.2 m²)
Length: 23 ft 7½ in (7.20 m)
Height: 10 ft 11⅞ in (3.35 m)
Empty Weight: 3,201 lb (1,455 kg)
Loaded Weight: 3,828 lb (1,740 kg)
Maximum Speed: 82 kn, 93 mph (150 km/h)
Range: 203 nm, 234 mi (375 km)
Service Ceiling: 14,760 ft (4,500 m)
Rate of Climb: 0551 ft/min. (854 m/s)
Wing Loading: 10.7 lb/ft² (52.4 kg/m²)
Power/Mass: 0.104 hp/lb (0.171 kW/kg)
Endurance: 2.5 hrs
Pilot: 2 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) fixed, downwards firing LMG 08/15 machine guns
Observer: 1 × 0.312 in (7.92 mm) Parabellum MG14 in rear cockpit
Posted 06 January 2013 - 14:56
Staaken R VI 30/16. Engine mechanic leaving his nacelle cockpit in flight, to mount the ladder that led to a bulged fairing on the upper wing surface fitted with a machinegun. Not all machines of the type had these installations which utilized captured Lewis guns because of their light weight and ease of portability, but they increased the defensive armament considerably and had better fields of fire than the other gun positions on the aircraft.
The electrical machine telegraph by which pilots and mechanics communicated was fixed to the
roof of the cabin. Twenty or more commands could be transmitted by mean of pre- et words indicated by light bulb. The wireless ending and receiving equipment was located on the port side, behind the pilot. The commander's navigation table was situated in close proximity across the gangway. The wireless equipment was powered by a 2·5 h.p. Bosch petrol-driven generator which supplied 1000 watt . During wireless silence the Bosch generator could provide electricity for heating the Aying suits of seven men and charge the batteries which provided electricity for the lighting system. The lighting could be controlled by the pilots to achieve any degree of illumination. Interior lights were covered with blue glass to reduce glare and danger of being spotted:
R.30. Staaken built. Four 260 h.p. Mercedes D.IVa engines. Acceptance flights in October 1917.
The constant need for hioher performance led to the development of several types of turbosuperchargers.
The R.30 became the test-bed for a centrifugal supercharger built to the designs
of Dipl.-Ing. W. G. Noack by Brown-Boveri & Co. of Mannheim. A 120 h.p..Mercedes D.l[
engine. located behind the starboard pilot, drove the supercharger which provided air to the
carburetters via conduits passing internally through the wing and into the nacelles. In September
1918 the R.30 was also equipped with Helix adjustable-pitch propellers designed by Prof. H. J.
Reissner. The pitch could be adjusted in flight by means of slotted cams that turned the metal
sleeves into which the wooden propeller blades were fitted. The modified R.30 made its first
test flight on 23 March 1918 and on 24 April attained an altitude of 19.357 feet, a remarkable
improvement over the 12,500 foot ceiling of standard R.VI machi~es. The maximum speed was
raised to 160 km.h., an increase of 30 km.h. over standard machInes.
On 24 May 1918 the R.30 was performing some test for Idflieg over Berlin. Hptm. Krupp
and Lt. Offermann were at the controls; Dipl.-lng Noack and five other crew members were
also aboard. At 3300 metres altitude a wrist pin seized, which caused the connecting-rod to
break and the piston to burst through the engine housing. This accident was later traced back
to improper cooling of the crankca e oil due to modifications required by the ~uperch.arge?
Mercedes engine. A fire tarted which pread to the lower wing, but by descendIng rapidly It
was possible to blowout these flames. However, long ribbon. of fire continued ~o s~ew from
the nacelle. Noack climbed over the lower wing to the burnIng nacelle and extingUished the
blaze with a portable fire extinguisher. The R.30 landed safely.
In the early post-war period the R.30 was used for civil work with the name "Fletcher's
World" painted on each ide of the nose and rear fuselage:
On the giant bombers of the R category electrically operated bomb releases were used. Shown is the bomb selector panel on Staaken R VI 30/16. Bombs could be released as required or in sequence, but there was also a salvo or jettison override that allowed all bombs to be dropped at the same time. Each selector switch had an adjacent light which was illuminated by contacts that closed once a bomb had left its rack. The instrument at upper right is an altimeter suspended by three coil springs to prevent errors due to vibration; its dial is calibrated in hundreds of metres, maximum scale being 5km (16,400ft).
Without doubt the most remarkable aircraft built by the Germans during the First World War were the "R" (Riesenflugzeug) type giant machines with four, five or six engines. The eventual degree of reliability that was attained was a noteworthy achievement when it is considered that everything connected with these unique aircraft had to be developed and produced from scratch. There was no previous experience in the design of aircraft of such gargantuan proportions. As an example of just one of the many difficulties, which had to be faced, that of engine failure may be instanced. Many of the first engines fitted in the Giants had been used with excellent reliability in airships, but in the aircraft they blew up (often literally) with monotonous regularity. This failure was eventually discovered to be due to the fact that the engines were called upon to produce upwards of 1,200 r.p.m. for considerable periods on take-off and climb, whereas in airship installation they were never-or rarely-called upon for more than a steady 800 r.p.m.
Undercarriage problems too were a constant headache, again due to there being no previous material of this size to draw upon and the fact that stressing problems were not fully understood. However, mainly trial and error and "guestimated" experiments brought a degree of reliability. A.E.G., D.F.W., Linke-Hofmann, S.S.W. and Zeppelin Staaken all built original designs, but it was only the latter firm's machine that was developed into a series production type, this being the R VI. All others remained prototypes, but the majority of these also saw operational service in varying degrees.
The Zeppelin Staaken R types had been developed, with varying engine permutations, from the V.G.O. I, which first flew in April 1915, to the R VI, in which production version it had four 245 h.p. Maybach or 260 h.p. Mercedes engines mounted in tandem pairs. The Zeppelin Fluzeugbau had moved to Staaken, near Berlin, in the summer of 1916, having transferred from Gotha-Ost, and it was there the majority of the building and development work was carried out.
Of the eighteen R.VIs completed (R 25-39 and R 52-54), six were built by Aviatik, seven by Schutte Lanz and four by O.A.W. All except R 30, which was an experimental supercharged model, saw operational service with Riesenflugzeugabteilungen 500 and 501 on the Western Front and operated from the Ghent area.
Construction of these monster machines, which spanned almost 140 ft., was a complicated and lengthy process, and the total number of man-hours must have been prodigious. A brief technical description follows, but for truly comprehensive coverage of these aircraft the serious student is referred to The German Giants, by Haddow and Grosz.
The fuselage was of wooden construction and basically a fabric-covered, braced, box-girder. The upper longerons were in a horizontal plane on a level with the airscrew axis for almost the whole of their length. The lower longerons were parallel as far back as the gun position, where they swept up in a straight taper to join the upper longerons in a horizontal knife-edge. A gun position was provided in the extreme nose, and in this cockpit the bomb- release gear was located. Aft of this position the two pilots sat side by side with dual wheel controls, followed by the radio operator's and navigator's compartments. On a level with the leading edges of the wings, provision was made for a mechanic, who was mainly responsible for controlling the emptying of the eight cylindrical fuel tanks so that trim was not upset. The spacious dorsal cockpit accommodated two gunners, who were also able to fire below the fuselage through a ventral position in the floor. The section of space for stowage of eighteen 100 kg. bombs with a through passageway in order to communicate with the fore part of the fuselage.
Of vast proportions, the wings were otherwise of orthodox construction and based on two main spars, which were of double box-girder section. The center panel of both wings extended as far as the engine nacelles and was without dihedral, as was the whole of the upper wing. The outer panels of the lower wing had marked dihedral. Taper on the wings was slight and on the leading edges only. Steel-tube compression members were positioned at interplane strut locations. The ribs were closely spaced and built-up lattice-girder structures, with top and bottom spruce flanges held together by double-lath web strips disposed zig-zag fashion. Ailerons were of steel-tube framework and, being unbalanced, must have demanded considerable muscle power-small wonder two pilots were required. All wing surfaces were fabric covered.
Streamlined engine nacelles of alloy stringers and panels were supported by twin "A" frames of steel tube located at the spar stations, to which, in turn, the engine bearers were attached by a complex frame of sheet steel and wood. The tandem-mounted engines were fitted with gear-boxes, and the airscrews of the rear engines were driven through extension shafts. A small cockpit was located between the engines wherein the flight mechanic endured his lonely vigil. All struts were of circular-section steel tube faired off with three-ply sheet.
An unusual feature of the Zeppelin Staaken R.VI was the wide use of aluminum in the construction of the tail. This was a huge biplane structure, the size of a single-seat fighter, with a swept leading edge to the tailplanes and inverse taper at the tips of the unbalanced elevators. The tailplane section was of a reverse camber. The triple rudders were the only control surfaces to be balanced, and all were fitted with fixed fin surfaces.
Although no less than eighteen wheels were used in the undercarriage, all three chassis were relatively simple vee-type structures. The axles of the main chassis, located immediately under the engine nacelles, were thicker than those of a railway wagon and supported two pairs of twin wheels each end, which must have caused considerable drag. Axles were bound to the steel-tube vees with elastic cord. The tailskid was a conventional component fabricated from a single piece of ash and shod with steel.
June 1917 saw the delivery of the first Staaken R.VI "R 25", soon to be followed by "R 26" in July. Many and varied were the sorties made by these Giant aeroplanes, including a considerable number of attacks on England, the first being on 17th September 1917, and even a raid on Le Havre, which involved a round trip of some 800 km. For a raid of this length a reduced bomb load was carried, probably in the nature of 750 kg. All bomb loads were in direct proportion to the fuel carried, which again was related to the range required. For raids of short duration 2,000 kg. of bombs could be carried, but the average load for a long-range sortie was about half that weight. The 100 kg. bombs were stowed internally, but the larger 300 and 1,000 kg. bombs (which were the largest bombs to be dropped from any aeroplane during the First World War) were carried under the belly, only partially enclosed.
The R 25, the first of the Staaken R.VIs to be supplied, made an intrepid solo raid upon London during the night of 17th/ 1 8th February 1918, and with considerable skill scored a direct hit upon St. Pancras railway station. R 26 succeeded in making no less than twenty varied sorties, during which a total of some 26,000 kg. of bombs was dropped.
The R.VI, R 39, was one of five Giants raiding England on the night of 16th - 17th February and dropped the first 1,000 kg. bomb on Britain, hitting the Royal Hospital, Chelsea. The same aircraft dropped the second 1,000 kg. bomb on the night of 7th - 8th March 1918, destroying houses in Warrington Crescent, Maida Vale.
Rfa 501 made a total of eleven raids on England between 18th December 1917 and 20th May 1918. They dropped 27,190 kg. of bombs (compared with 84,745 kg. dropped by Gothas in twenty-two raids) and lost no aircraft due to Allied action.
A seaplane variant of the R.VI was built for the Navy.
Type: Staaken R.VI Staaken R.VI Staaken R.VI 30/16
Manufacturer: Flugzeugwerft G.m.b.H., Staaken, Berlin
Engines: Four 260 h.p. Mercedes D.IVa engines Four 245 h.p. Maybach Mb.IVa engines Four 260 h.p. Mercedes D.YIa engines
R.VI 30/16: - One 120 h.p. Mercedes D.II to drive Brown-Boveri supercharger
Span, 42•2 m. (138 ft. 5 1/2 in.)
Chord inner, 4•6 m. (15 ft. 1 in.)
Chord outer, 3•6 m. (11 ft. 10 in.)
Gap inner, 4•6 m. (15 ft. 1 in.)
Gap outer, 3•8 m. (12 ft. 5 1/2 in.)
Incidence inner, 3 1/2 degrees
Incidence outer, 2 degrees
Dihedral upper, none
Dihedral lower, 1 1/2 degrees
Back stagger, 0-4 m. (l ft. 3 1/2 in.)
Length, 22•1 m. (72 ft. 6 in.)
Height, 6•3 m. (20 ft. 8 in.)
Tail span, 9•0 m. (29 ft. 6 in.)
gap, 2•0 m. (6 ft. 6t in.)
Propeller centres, 8•0 m. (26 ft. 3 in.)
Tractor propellers diameter, 4•26 m. (14 ft.)
Pusher propeller diameter, 4•3 m. (14 ft. 1 in.)
Wheel diameter, 1•02 m. (3 ft. 4 in.)
Areas: Wings, 332 sq. m. (3572 sq. ft.)
Wings, 2,050 kg.
Fuselage, 1,450 kg.
Tail unit, 400 kg.
Undercarriage, 800 kg.
Accessories, 250 kg.
Engines and transmission, 2,730 kg.
Empty, 7,680 kg. (16,934 lb.) 7921 kg. (17,465 lb.) 8600 kg. (18,963 lb.)
Fuel, 1,980 kg. (4,366 lb.)
Disposable load, 1,800 kg. (3,969 lb.)
Loaded, 11,460 kg. (25,269 lb.) 11,848 kg. (26,125 lb.) 11,590 kg. (25,556 lb.)
Wing Loading: 34•5 kg./sq. m. (7'1 lb./sq. ft.) 35•7 kg./sq. m. (7,3 lb./sq. ft.) 35•0 kg. sq. m. (7,2 lb./sq. ft.)
Maximum speed, 130 km.h. (80'8 m.p.h.) 135 km.h. (83'9 m.p.h.) 160 km.h. (99-4 m.p.h.)
1000 m. (3281 ft.) in 11 mins. in 10 mins. in 10 mins.
2000 m. (6562 ft.) in 27 mins. in 23 mins. in 24 mins.
3000 m. (9843 ft.) in 55 mins. in 43 mins. in 35 mins.
Ceiling, 3800 m. (12,467 ft.) in 150 mins. 4320 m. (14,174 ft.) in 146 mins. 5900 m. (19,357 ft.) in 102 mins.
Duration, 7-8 hrs. 7-10 hrs. -
Fuel: 2115 litres (465 Imp. Gals.) 3000 litres (660 Imp. Gal.) -
Armament: Provision for nose, dorsal, ventral and upper-wing machine-gun positions
Service Use: Western Front with Rfa 500 and Rfa 501, 1917 - November 1918 Western Front with Rfa 500 and Rfa 501, 1917 - November 1918 None
Posted 06 January 2013 - 16:55
Ps: I'm a friend of Jasta 14
Posted 07 January 2013 - 20:01
Christmas Bullet 1918
Jane's All The World Aircraft 1919 Журнал Flight
A single-seater tractor biplane of quaint appearance was tested at the U.S.A. Government Experimental Field No.1 on Dec. 3rd and 7th.
The machine is named the Christmas "Bullet" after its designer, Dr. W.W.Christmas, and is driven by a Liberty "6" engine, which develops 185 h.p. at 1,400 r.p.m. The "Bullet" was reported to have attained a speed of 175 m.p.h. at tree quarter throttle.
The "Bullet" has what is termed one and-a-half planes, as used in the Nieuport biplanes, the upper plane having a span of 28ft, and a chord of 2 1/2 ft. External bracing and struts do not exist, the upper wing being fitted to the top of the fuselage and the lower wing to the bottom.
The wing curve is one developed by Dr. Christmas, and is of fairly deep section between the main wing spars, but tapers off sharply aft of the rear spar, merging into a flat and thin flexible trailing edge. The wing this maintains a high angle of incidence and a fair camber at low speeds, and a lower angle and a flatter camber at higher speeds. This system of wing construction is reminiscent in a measure of the earlier Breguet and Caudron machines.
Both upper and lower planes have the same aspect ratio. The upper plane has a maximum thickness of 5 ins. Fuller details of the wing construction cannot at the moment be given, as patents were still pending when the last was heard of the machine.
The car-type radiator and engine are placed in the front part of the fuselage, which is very deep. The two-bladed airscrew has a projectiong bullet-shaped hub. The landing carriage struts are of deep section, such as is used in the Curtiss land machines and Burgess seaplanes. The pilot's cockpit is located behind the upper plane, affording a fairly good view in most directions.
The elevator is not divided, as the rudder is fitted to the vertical fin in such a manner as not to interfere with free elevator movement. This method is similar to that emplayed in the Pfalz single-seater scout. The tail-skid is fixed to the stern-post.
The principal details of the Christmas "Bullet" are as follows:
Span, upper plane 28 ft.
Span, lower plane 12 ft.
Chord, upper plane 5 ft.
Chord, lower plane 2 ft. 6 in.
Area, upper plane 140 sq. ft.
Area, lower plane 30 sq. ft.
Length overall 21 ft.
Weight, machine empty 1,820 lbs.
Weight, fully loaded 2,100 lbs.
Minimum speed 50-60 m.p.h.
Maximum speed 175 m.p.h.
Cruising radius 550 miles
Ceiling 14,700 ft.
Posted 07 January 2013 - 20:52
Length: 36 ft 10 in (11.23 m)
Wingspan: 60 ft 10 in (18.54 m)
Height: 14 ft 6 in (4.42 m)
Wing area: 793 ft2 (73.67 m2)
Empty weight: 3,980 lb (1,805 kg)
Gross weight: 5,810 lb (2,635 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Beardmore 120 hp inline piston engine, 120 hp (89 kW) each
Maximum speed: 95 mph (153 km/h)
Range: 700 miles (1,130 km)
Endurance: 8 hours
Rate of climb: 550 ft/min (2.8 m/s)
2 × flexibly mounted .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis guns
up to 680 lb (308 kg) bombs
DH3_flt.jpg 128.71KB 665 downloads
Ps : I wish me the Handley Page 0-400
Posted 07 January 2013 - 21:31
But thanks for the Post.
Posted 08 January 2013 - 10:55
But as I just could reference Wikipedia as source, I leave it to the more knowledgable to give details on N, L, AI, …
Posted 08 January 2013 - 12:24
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